In a poll conducted by the National Sleep Foundation (NSF), 78 percent of women reported more disturbed sleep during pregnancy than at other times. Sleep-related problems also became more prevalent as the women's pregnancies progressed.
Dr. Jill Powell, assistant professor in the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Women's Health at St. Louis University School of Medicine, says she finds most sleep disturbances follow the pattern found in the NSF's poll. In other words, sleep problems can develop early on but usually aren't too bad and abate as the pregnancy progresses. Later, other issues can cause insomnia to reoccur.
Insomnia in the First Trimester
In the first trimester, insomnia is relatively common and is caused by the hormonal changes of pregnancy. Dr. Powell says there are a couple of reasons for this. "Early in pregnancy women tend to feel very fatigued because of what I call the progesterone phenomenon," says Dr. Powell. "Progesterone is a natural sedative, and a woman may be so tired she has this sensation of not being able to keep her eyes open. She may react by napping during the day or falling asleep on the couch after work. This then gets her out of her normal sleep patterns."
The result is she may not be able to fall asleep that night, which then just sets in place a vicious cycle of exhaustion. To avoid this, Dr. Powell suggests trying to avoid long naps during the day. Try taking a walk or finding some other activity instead of sleeping. Go to bed at the same time every night, even if it's earlier than your "normal" pre-pregnancy schedule to get some extra sleep.
In addition to hormonal changes, Dr. Powell notes there is often a lot of anxiety in the first trimester. A woman may have concerns about her health or the baby's health and may worry about miscarriage. There may even be more specific reasons for anxiety, such as financial worries if the pregnancy was unplanned. For this type of emotion-related insomnia, Dr. Powell suggests trying to find someone to talk to who may help ease your worries, such as a friend, clergyman, or your doctor.
The other common reason for insomnia is sleep disturbances due to having to urinate frequently. At this point in the pregnancy, the uterus is still fairly small and has not yet pushed up out of the pelvis. As a result, it pushes against the bladder and can cause frequent urination. This will resolve itself in the second trimester as the uterus grows and pops up out of the pelvis.
Insomnia in the Third Trimester
Dr. Powell says women usually don't exhibit many sleep problems in the second trimester, what she calls "the honeymoon trimester," but insomnia often occurs in the third trimester. "As the third trimester progresses there's more pressure on your lungs and you fatigue more easily but start sleeping more poorly," says Dr. Powell. "The cause for virtually all of the sleep disturbances at this phase can be traced to the increase in size of the abdomen."
In the case of the third trimester, it's not so much inability to sleep or being out of rhythm with sleep cycles as it is sleep disturbances. For example, the bladder once again starts feeling the pressure of the enlarging uterus and the mother-to-be may find herself up and down several times a night.
Sleep disturbances are common for other reasons. Rolling over is not as easy as it once was, and for women who prop themselves with several pillows, it may involve enough readjusting to cause them to wake up. Heartburn can also be severe enough to awaken you from sleep.
Another common problem is trouble getting comfortable. Some people only get their best sleep in certain positions, so back sleepers or stomach sleepers have to adjust to sleeping on their sides. However, as Dr. Powell points out, this may actually be a good thing, as it's not good for the baby to sleep on your back.
At this point in the pregnancy, there's not a lot that can be done about some of the things causing insomnia. For heartburn, your doctor can recommend a safe antacid or other medication. Exercise may also help with insomnia.
7 Tips to Combat Insomnia
Dr. Ken Sassower, a staff neurologist at Massachusetts General Hospital working in the sleep disorders unit, says the most important thing for a pregnant woman to do to ensure good sleep throughout her pregnancy is to maintain good sleep habits. This includes the following:
- Go to bed and wake up at about the same time every day.
- Don't nap during the day.
- Avoid alcohol and tobacco. Pregnant women should do this anyway.
- Don't drink caffeinated beverages four to six hours before bedtime.
- Avoid spicy foods.
- Get regular exercise, but not too close to bedtime.
- Do not watch TV or read in bed. Go to bed only when you're sleepy, and use the bed only for sleep or sex.